Turkish Thrace consists for the most part of a basin of tectonic origin, already formed in quite ancient times (before the Eocene), partly filled by calcareous sediments, limited on the part of the Black Sea by a parallel granite relief to the coast (Stranca Daǧï), covered by forests and shrubs, which reaches 1000 meters at the highest point, while towards the SW.the Erǧene, along a tributary of the Marica (Meriç) which rejoins the main river in a region often flooded, flows on more recent lake soils (from the Oligocene to the Pliocene). The Thracian plain is separated from the Sea of Marmara by the Tekir Daǧ chain (923m), formed by sandstones.The climate is rough and the prevailing aspect, not very dissimilar from Inner Anatolia, is that of a cleared plain, with poor villages; the most common crop is that of cereals, but rice and cotton also grow well along the Marica. Pastoralism (sheep) is widespread in uncultivated areas and in the peripheral reliefs, while the surroundings of Constantinople have beautiful intensive crops (gardens and vineyards). In addition to the latter city, we must mention Adrianople (Edirne), at the confluence of the Marica della Tundža and Arda, now very decayed due to the proximity of the border, and Kïrklareli, near the slopes of the Stranca Daǧï, a wine and cereal market.. There are some tertiary lignite quarries. last city are Adrianople (Edirne), at the confluence of the Marica della Tundža and Arda, now very decayed due to the proximity of the border, and Kïrklareli, near the slopes of the Stranca Daǧï, a wine and cereal market. There are some tertiary lignite quarries. last city are Adrianople (Edirne), at the confluence of the Marica della Tundža and Arda, now very decayed due to the proximity of the border, and Kïrklareli, near the slopes of the Stranca Daǧï, a wine and cereal market. There are some tertiary lignite quarries. For Turkey 1997, please check aristmarketing.com.
Overall, the region has little economic importance, while on the military side it constitutes a very important maneuvering ground for the domination of the Straits. European Turkey, a residual part of a territory that still in 1912 embraced 326 thousand sq km. of surface area and 5 million residents, it is separated from Turkey of Asia by the Sea of Marmara and the Straits, that is the Dardanelles, 60 km long, 4 to 7.5 wide on average, with a minimum of 1270 meters near Çanakkale, in correspondence with a river delta, rather monotonous, uniform, devoid of vegetation, and the Bosphorus, more varied in appearance, because it is dug out of more resistant rocks and rich in luxuriant vegetation, on average 1500 meters wide, but just 600 meters in the narrowest points, more and more inhabited as you proceed towards the Golden Horn. For their progress, due to the profile of the course and the numerous terraces, Dardanelles and Bosphorus are nothing more than river valleys sunk in recent times. The Asian region that looks towards the Sea of Marmara includes Misia to the west and Bithynia to the east, which are bathed not only by this sea, but the first by the Aegean, the second by the Black Sea. Sea of Marmara include Izmit, a Turkish naval base, Mudania (Mudanya), the port of Brussa (Bursa), and Panderma (Bandirma), where the railway from Magnesia leads.
The Aegean region has a rather complex orography, given that the folds of the Pontus, the Taurus, the Aegean chains overlap with the ancient relief of Lydia and Caria and the morphology is even more complicated on the one hand due to a lowering of the coasts, which caused the sea to penetrate in the lower parts, on the other for the volcanic action. The region lends itself very well to exchanges between Europe and Asia. The climate is Mediterranean with mild winters and hot summers, attenuated by sea breezes. The cultivated lands cover 7.1% of the surface, with a prevalence of cereals (82.8%), then industrial plants (9.5%, especially tobacco) and legumes (7.7%). Arboriculture is widespread (figs, vines), which find favorable conditions on the hills. The economic region of the Aegean produced 45 thousand tons in 1934. of grapes, 26 thousand of figs and as many of olive oil, 12 thousand tons. of tobacco and as many of cotton. From north to south are divided Misia, Lidia, Caria.
La Misia is a united country, compact, elevated, not very accessible, with rocks of different ages and facies, shaped into large erosion areas, with fairly articulated coasts and rivers with valleys that are now wide, now narrow, which send the waters to the Sea of Marmara, somewhat humid climate (Pontic influences), rather expanded wood cover, with trees similar to those of Central Europe, cultivation of cereals, vines, olive trees and cattle breeding, now being improved due to the arrival of many refugees.
Lydia has well-articulated coasts, rich plains, limited by rather arid mountains, partly formed by ancient crystalline rocks (lido-carian mass), partly by recent folds and volcanic reliefs, which have been subject to lowering, covered by a steppe vegetation or Mediterranean shrubs. The basins, of recent age (earthquakes), are covered by fertile soil and beautiful crops, favored by a mild and humid climate in winter, dry and moderately hot in summer; important roads pass through them, now traced by railway lines. The coast, which has youthful characteristics and is subject to rapid variations, also due to the floods of the rivers (such as the Ermo, which threatened the existence of Smyrna, the Meander, which filled the Bay of Miletus, the Caistro, who made Ephesus lose all importance), it lends itself well to navigation, which in ancient times relied on numerous small ports, located near the promontories, while now it looks for well-defended inland gulfs, from which it is easy to access the hinterland. The Greek colonization left here, as indeed in the whole Aegean region.
Caria is also a region with very articulated coasts, partly due to elongated folds, partly to sinking basins which, however, lose much of their value due to the fact that they are leaning against a wooded massif (pines and scrub Mediterranean), so that the main activity of the residents, who are very poor, is directed towards fishing and cabotage. Only in the Neogenic basins of the interior and in some sinkholes are cereals, tobacco and olive trees grown.