In relation to the rainfall, there are various plant covers, represented both by the evergreen equatorial forest (with gigantic plants, such as Dipterocarpus zeylanicus, locally called hora), and by the deciduous forest, a sort of tree-lined savannah (talava), and in certain areas, as in the north, it also hosts xerophilous species. Although the fauna of Sri Lanka shows a certain affinity with that of southern India, numerous endemic species still live on the island such as, among the monkeys, the Ceylon macaque and the Presbitys senex, the latter similar to the entellus. (this is also present in the forests where the puny lory also lives). Also among the mammals are the elephant, considered by some authors to be a subspecies of the Asian one, the thorny dormouse, now widespread throughout South Asia, and the sloth bear. Among the Reptiles are represented some chameleons and all kinds of snakes of the Uropeltidi family: the giant Europeltis is exclusive to the country, where it lives in wooded and humid areas. Finally, there are still numerous roosters and peacocks still in the wild. To preserve this rich variety of flora and fauna, the Department of Nature Conservation (DWLC) was established in 1949. The protected areas cover 15.4% of the territory and include 14 national parks and numerous forest and natural reserves, in addition, the Sinharaja Forest Reserve (1988) and the Central Highlands (2010) have been declared a World Heritage Site by UNESCO. Visit sourcemakeup.com for golden beaches of Sri Lanka. Deforestation is one of the major environmental problems in the country, which has also led to an increase in soil erosion; wildlife, which includes some species considered to be in extinction, is threatened by poaching and increasing urbanization. Pollution affects coasts (damaged by mining activities) and cities; water pollution caused by industrial waste and other wastewater is also noteworthy.
AGRICULTURE, LIVESTOCK AND FISHING
Rice is a fundamental crop, which occupies almost half of the entire agricultural area, mainly extended in the southwestern humid belt; it is intended for internal nutrition, such as cassava, potatoes, sweet potatoes, vegetables and fruit in general. Tea is an essential export product (Sri Lanka is the third largest producer in the world), whose plantations cover the slopes of the central massif. Coconut palm products (nuts, oil and copra), grown in the coastal strip at the edge of the rice fields, and spices, including cardamom, lemongrass, pepper, areca are also exported.and the precious cinnamon; tobacco, sugar cane, cotton, cocoa, coffee, etc. are also grown. In the interior areas a good resource is offered by forests, which cover about one third of the land area. Rubber is very important, for which Sri Lanka is the eighth Asian producer. On the other hand, breeding is not very developed (cattle and buffaloes, mainly used for agricultural work, goats and birds) while fishing has a fair extent and contributes to exports.
INDUSTRIES AND MINERAL RESOURCES
The resources of the subsoil are of little importance; energy minerals are lacking; main products of extraction are graphite, salt, zirconium, ilmenite and some precious stones (rubies, sapphires, topazes); there are small deposits of iron, gold and radioactive minerals. Among the industries, textile (cotton mills) and clothing industries prevail and in general those that process local products: oil mills, sugar mills, rubber factories, tobacco factories, tanneries, paper mills, ceramic and wood processing, etc.; there are also small cement factories, two steel plants and an oil refinery.
The cinematographic activity began in 1947, but only after 1955 there was a regular development and only after the creation of the Republic of Sri Lanka (1972) was born a state body for the import and distribution of films (Tharangani), open to quality and enhancement of the classics. But musical products specially packaged in southern India have prevailed on the Sinhalese market, although a national current has long existed led by director LJ Peries who revealed himself in Cannes in 1957 with Rekava (), of a surprising artistic level for anyone who ignores cultural traditions. of the country. Later author of many works of historical or social inspiration, such as Nidhanaya (1971;), (1983;), (2003;), Peries paved the way for an entire generation of filmmakers, committed to contributing to national progress with topical and denouncing films. One of the most interesting and well-known, even beyond national borders, is Prasanna Vithanage: among her works we remember Anantha Rathriya (1996; Dark Night of the Soul) and Ira Madiyama (2003; August Sun), winners of international awards. Another director who has already been recognized and awarded at various festivals (San Sebastian, Tōkyō, Singapore) is Asoka Handagama (b.1962), author of Tani tatuwen piyabanna (2002; Flying with One Wing) and Me mage sandai (2000; This Is My Moon). Vimukthi Jayasundara (b. 1977) was awarded at Cannes in 2005 for Sulanga Enu Pinisa (The Abandoned Land).