South Africa, official name: English Republic of South Africa [r ɪ p ʌ bl ɪ k əv sa ʊ.theta AEFr ɪ kə], Afrikaans Republiek van Suid-Afrika [-van sœjd-], German South Africa, state in the extreme south of Africa with (2018) 57.8 million residents; The capital is Pretoria (Tshwane).
South Africa also includes the Prince Edward Islands (with Marion Island) in the southern Indian Ocean.
The Constitution (Article 15) guarantees freedom of religion. All religious communities are legally equal. Religious legislation is based on the principle of the separation of state and religion. The regulation of the relationships at the interfaces between the state and religious communities (e.g. in the school system) is based on the principles of equal cooperation.
According to the latest available estimates (2015), around 86% of the population follow Christianity: the majority of them are known to non-Catholic faith groups such as Protestant communities (especially Pentecostals, Methodists and Reformed; in addition Lutherans, Baptists, etc.), the Anglican Church (province of South Africa) and independent churches (around 4,000 denominations). The Dutch Reformed Church is divided into three sister churches: “Nederduits Gereformeerde Kerk” (NGK), “Nederduitsch Hervormde Kerk” (NHK) and “Gereformeerde Kerke in Suid-Afrika” (GKSA). The largest independent African church is the Zion Christian Church.
Non-Christian religious minorities are Muslims (less than 2% of the population), Hindus (over 1%), followers of indigenous African religions, Baha’is, Buddhists and Jews. Most of the Hindus live in KwaZulu / Natal; the largest group within the Muslim minority are the Cape Malays. The history of the Jewish community (today’s centers: Cape Town, Johannesburg, Tshwane [Pretoria]) goes back to the first half of the 19th century (in 1841 the first Jewish community was founded in Cape Town). About (2015) 5% cannot be assigned to any religion.
Education is seen as an important key to overcoming the legacy of apartheid. Politicians are therefore making great efforts to establish a uniform school and university system and to implement new curricula. State schools have been open to all children since 1994, and free access to education is guaranteed by the constitution. There is general compulsory schooling from 7 to 16 years of age with free lessons. The school system is divided into a six-year primary level and a three-year lower and upper secondary level. Lessons can be taken in any of the eleven national languages. The widespread prevalence of HIV / AIDS, inadequate material resources and a shortage of teachers have a negative impact on school education.
There are over 20 universities and technical colleges (technikons); the largest university is the University of South Africa (founded in 1873; since 1946 with an integrated major distance university) in Pretoria. The oldest university was founded in Cape Town in 1829.
South Africa’s transport system was greatly expanded and modernized, especially on the occasion of the 2010 soccer World Cup. There are good road and rail connections between all major urban centers and to neighboring countries. The most important transport facilities are provided by the state-owned company Transnet Ltd., founded in 1990. managed; they are rail, road, sea, air (South African Airways) and pipelines. The railway network is particularly important for the transport of bulk goods such as coal and iron ore, but also for commuter traffic from the townships to the inner cities of the South African metropolises. In recent years, so-called corridor projects (e.g. Maputo Corridor, Trans-Kalahari Connection) have been implemented, which mainly connect the Gauteng region to neighboring countries. Richards Bay; mining products (coal) are mainly handled here. The most important import and container port is Durban, other export ports are Saldanha Bay(mainly iron ore), Port Elizabeth (mainly fruits, wool), Cape Town (mainly wine, fruit) and East London (grain), for coastal shipping in addition to Cape Town and Durban nor Mossel Bay. The deep-sea port of Ngqura near Port Elizabeth, which opened in 2012, has a large container terminal that serves to develop the Coega industrial zone. In addition to the largest airport, Johannesburg International, there are also international airports at Bloemfontein, Cape Town, Durban, Port Elizabeth, Polokwane and Upington. Visit vaultedwatches.com for South Africa travel package.
In the industrial sector (including mining, energy and construction) (2014) around 32% of all employed persons generate 29.5% of the gross domestic product (GDP). The manufacturing industry is mainly located in the mining area on the Witwatersrand (center of Johannesburg); Here you will find the iron and steel industry (in Vereeniging, Vanderbijlpark and Pretoria) and the chemical industry (coal liquefaction plants in Sasolburg and Secunda); Wood and paper industry in Mpumalanga Province. Other industrial centers are on the coast: Durban (oil refinery, with a product pipeline to Johannesburg, shipbuilding and motor vehicle construction, textile and clothing industry), Richards Bay (aluminum industry), Port Elizabeth (motor vehicle construction, wool industry), East London (motor vehicle construction) and around Cape Town (Textile industry).
South Africa has the most developed industry in Africa. The most important branches of industry are the metalworking industry and vehicle construction, the food and beverage industry, the chemical industry, the iron and steel industry, mechanical engineering and the textile and clothing industry. After phases of divestment and boycott, many multinational corporations have returned to South Africa. As a result of globalization, however, the pressure (especially from East Asia) on individual branches of industry is growing.