State structure and political system of Kuwait
Kuwait is a constitutional monarchy. The Constitution of 1962 is in force. Administrative division – 3 governorships. The largest cities (thousand people): El-Kuwait, Salmiya (about 130), Mina-el-Ahmadi (El-Ahmadi) (about 120).
Principles of state administration: power is entrusted to the emir, who exercises it through the government. The emir can formulate policies and laws, can veto laws passed by parliament. Laws come into force only after the approval of Parliament. Parliament can pass a vote of no confidence in government ministers, with the exception of the prime minister. Individual freedoms, equality of citizens before the law, freedom of expression are guaranteed.
The highest legislative body is the National Assembly. The highest body of executive power is the Council of Ministers. The head of state is the emir.
The head of the supreme body of executive power is the Prime Minister.
The National Assembly (Parliament) consists of 50 deputies elected for 4 years. Only men who settled in Kuwait before 1920 or naturalized more than 30 years ago can become deputies. Suffrage is vested in literate male citizens who naturalized more than 30 years ago, or Kuwaitis living in the country since 1920 and earlier, and their descendants aged at least 21 years who do not serve in the army and police. The entire Cabinet of Ministers is also included in the National Assembly ex officio. According to the Constitution, the emir appoints the crown prince as head of government, the emir appoints members of the government (on the recommendation of the prime minister).
The most famous political figures in Kuwait include representatives of the al-Sabah family (who have ruled since 1756). They headed the state from the day of its foundation, held the post of prime minister. Under their leadership, the country has made significant progress in development.
Political parties are banned in Kuwait, but there are political movements: Islamic (moderate Islamic Constitutional Movement, Shiite National Islamic Coalition, etc.), democratic (Kuwaiti Democratic Forum, etc.), Arab nationalists.
In Kuwait, until recently, the state has played the most important role in the economy; in the main sectors, private capital is involved in auxiliary projects. The private sector has been expanding somewhat in recent years. Among the leading organizations of the business community are the Kuwait Chamber of Commerce and Industry, the Kuwait Federation of Industry. A center for the development of industrial exports has been established with the participation of business circles and the state. The Kuwaiti Commercial Markets Association in the form of a private company, the United Real Estate Company, and the Mobile Communications Company are widely known. Private investors own two commercial banks: Al-Ahly and Kuwait Real Estate Bank, a number of insurance companies, more than 60% of the capital of the Kuwait Cement Company, more than 80% of the Kuwait Metal Pipe Company.
There are a large trade union association, the General Federation of Workers of Kuwait (GFRK), which is part of the International Confederation of Arab Trade Unions and the World Federation of Trade Unions, the Federation of Oil and Petrochemical Industry Workers, etc. The WFRK has its own print organ – the weekly magazine “Al-Amal” (“Worker”). The elements of civil society include the practice of discussing public affairs in informal meetings – “divans”. The country has intelligentsia, the working class, entrepreneurs, civil servants.
The domestic policy of Kuwait is formed on the basis of achieving agreement between the authorities and society, with the leading role of the emir’s power, aimed at maintaining social stability, accelerated economic development. Foreign policy is aimed at ensuring national political and economic security, peaceful settlement of international problems.
Armed Forces of Kuwait to ser. 1990s counted approx. 12 thousand people They consist of the army, including the air force, the navy, and there are security forces. In 2002, there were 368 tanks, 81 combat aircraft, several warships. Kuwait spends heavily on strengthening the Armed Forces. The military budget in 2000/01 was 8.7% of GDP.
Kuwait has diplomatic relations with the Russian Federation (established with the USSR in 1963).
Science and culture of Kuwait
In 1936, only 2 schools worked in the country, and in the 1990s. there were already more than 1,000 of them. According to searchforpublicschools, education is free, from school to university. In addition to schools, there is a system of specialized colleges – technical, commercial, medical, spiritual, etc. The total number of teachers of all forms of education is 40.9 thousand, students 474.2 thousand (1998/99). 7% of the population over the age of 15 is illiterate. Kuwait University was opened in 1966 and became the largest educational institution in the Persian Gulf. In addition, hundreds of students are studying abroad. Great efforts are being made in the development of national science. The Kuwait Institute for Scientific Research has been established, where work is being carried out in various areas: mineralogy, ecology, development of agriculture in arid zones and others, with the involvement of specialists from all over the world.
National culture is represented by the Museum of Kuwait with collections of exhibits on history, archeology, ethnography, and special architecture. On Failaka Island there are remains of a Greek temple from the 4th century BC. Local culture is also represented by folklore art, sacred music orchestras, camel racing, falconry. Muslim traditions and customs, the Ramadan fast, the ban on alcohol, etc. have an important cultural significance.