According to THEMBAPROGRAMS.COM, commander of all imperial artillery at the end of the century was Germanico di Strassoldo, from Gorizia. Towards the end of the century other Italians reached the highest ranks in the imperial army: Enea Silvio di Caprara, from Bologna, participated in the wars against Swedes, Turks and French, was field marshal, supreme commander in Hungary and vice-president of the courtly council ; Federico Ambrogio Veterani from Urbino defended Vienna in 1683, organized the Hungarian cavalry, then fought for 12 years against the Turks. In all the wars mentioned, there is no lack of Italian military engineers, more especially those involved in fortification works; Giovanni Pieroni was in defense of Vienna, then strengthened Magyaróvár, Presburgo, Pest, Györ and Prague. Also in Germany, but in the field opposed to the emperor, was another very famous architect and military engineer, Rocco Linari, from Marradi, who in 1578 was chief engineer of Brandenburg, minister of state and councilor: his masterpiece is the fortress of Spandau and especially the citadel on the island at the confluence of the Spree and the Havel. In Poland we remember Giovan Battista Fediani, from Lucca, captain of the artillery and governor of Warsaw in 1573: Alessandro Guagnin who fought in Moldavia and Moscovia and was governor of Vitebsk at 35 years of age; Annibale Porrone, Lombard, was major general of the kingdom.
In the century The Roman lieutenant general Francesco Sabbatini stood out among the military engineers in the service of Spain; Michele Roncali-Destefanis, who was at the war in Portugal, raised fortifications in Catalonia and in America, was also minister of state. The Lombard Vittorio Amedeo Besso and his son Filippo were marshals and great of Spain; the Sardinian Giacomo Maiones, general, was director of the Spanish schools of artillery and genius. Alessandro Malaspina took part in the naval actions of 1780-81-82. In France they reached the marshal in the century. XVIII Vittorio Maurizio di Broglio, from Piedmont, who was also minister of war, and his son Francesco Maria in 1758; Andrea Massena, Duke of Rivoli, and Giovan Michele Ravicchio, from Turin; Luigi di Narbone-Lara from Romagna was Louis XVI’s Minister of War, then lieutenant general, Napoleon’s aide-de-camp. In Warsaw Bartolomeo Folino set up a school of military genius and in 1774 he was made a noble like Giuseppe Sagramoso for the valor shown in war. A strong group of Italians in this eighteenth century were elevated to the highest military ranks of the Empire. The Marquis Alessandro Maffei, from Verona, field marshal, governor of Namur, cooperated validly in the great victories of Prince Eugene against the Turks; and the Apulian Francesco Saverio Marullo was a field marshal, a state and war councilor. Francesco del Guasco, from Cuneo, served first in the Russian army, then in the Austrian one; became a marshal; for his defense of Schweidnitz (1762) against Frederick II he was called the Leonidas of the century. XVIII. Almost contemporary to him was the general Pietro Alessandro, Count of Guasco da Mondovì, also very cultured and valiant in the service of Austria; Count Ernesto Federico Giannone distinguished himself as an officer of genius in various battles and sieges and became a marshal. The marshals Giovan Battista Serbelloni, from Milan, had almost the same history; Thursday Antonio Bettoni, Lombard; Giacomo di Botta Adorno, from Cremona; Giovanni Cavallini, from Puglia, who fought in Belgium and against the Turks. Federico Manfredini, from Veneto, was a general in the Anglo-Russian war, magnate of Hungary, minister of state; Giovanni Nobile, Paduan, marshal, lieutenant and director of the Academy of Engineers.
In the century XIX we remember in Spain the Milanese Guglielmo Minali, heroic defender of Gerona against the Napoleonic invasion, the marshal Luigi Margueli of Savona and the admiral Federico Gravina, reformer of the Spanish navy; in Portugal, Carlo Antonio Galeani-Napione, supreme commander and reformer of the land and sea armies. In France there were many Italian leaders around Napoleon, including the generals Giuseppe Lechi, Achille Fontanelli, Gaetano Costa, Cosimo del Fante, Maurizio Fresia, the sailor Giuseppe Bavastro and others. General G. Bonomo reorganized the Austrian military genius, and after seventeen campaigns against the French and the Turks he died as a marshal; Natale Beroaldo-Bianchini, from Modena, artillery general, set up the grandiose artillery factory in Vienna; Federico Bianchi fought validly against Napoleon and was a member of the courtly council of war; the Milanese Ferdinando Serbelloni was Marshal of Austria and military commander of Vorarlberg. Also worthy of mention are the two admirals Francesco Bandiera, father of the two heroic brothers, and Silvestro Dandolo, the founders of the Austrian navy. In Russia it was Filippo Paolucci from Piedmont, adjutant general of the tsar, who defeated the Turks and the Persians (1810) and was then governor of Courland and Livonia; and Luigi Gianotti, lieutenant general, who was entrusted with the military education of Grand Duke Nicola. We close this series of the great Italian leaders abroad by recalling the heroic exploits of Giuseppe Garibaldi in Latin America (1836-1848) and in France (1870-71).