For Spain he also fought, in Flanders, with many other Italians, Alessandro Farnese who conquered Maastricht, Bruges, Ypres, Ghent, Antwerp and forced Henry IV to lift the siege from Paris (1590). At the end of the century XVI fought and died in France Scipione Vergano. The greatest credit for Montcontour’s victory against the Huguenots is due to Sforza Sforza, at the head of an army of Italians. In France we still remember the admirals Leone and Filippo Strozzi, Flaminio Orsini, Alberto Gondi, governor of Provence, Florentines; the marshals Giovanni Caracciolo and Alfonso d’Ornano, Corsican, who fought for Henry IV in Provence, in the Dauphiné, defeated the Spaniards, he was made lieutenant general of La Guienna, and as mayor of Bordeaux he dried up the marshes near the city. His son Gian Battista was also a marshal of France, governor of Pont-Saint. Esprit and lieutenant of Normandy.
According to SEARCHFORPUBLICSCHOOLS.COM, the Empire also made great use of the work of Italians. Giovan Battista Castaldo, from Naples, fought as a general in Hungary against the Turks and in Flanders; Gabrio Serbelloni, from Mantua, fought in Hungary, defended Esztergom against the Turks, fought against the Smalcaldic League, at the Battle of Lepanto, in Africa, and became supreme general of the imperial artillery and engineers. The Marquis Sforza Pallavicini, from Parma, was a cavalry captain general and fought in Germany and Hungary with the marshal. In this period, numerous Italian engineers were in Hungary to fortify various localities against the Turks, in particular the fortresses of Agria (Eger) and Giavarino (Györ), Italian works in which tens and tens of fellow countrymen succeeded one another.
In the century XVII the work of Italian military engineers abroad was still very vast, although schools of military technique had already been created in the individual states. In Spain, although this century marks a period of stoppage, yet not a few of our engineers worked; the stories record about 83. Among the greatest we note Gabrio Serbelloni; Luigi Carducci, Giuliano and Cesare Faruffini who held artillery and fortification schools in Madrid; i Dell’Isola, Ascanio della Cornia. Where the work of Italian engineers and condottieri in the service of Spain shone most was in Flanders: Francesco Tensini, from Cremasco, took part in 18 sieges and became lieutenant general of artillery; Girolamo Caraffa, from Abruzzo, fought there for a long time; the Farnese died, he took the supreme command in northern France and was badly wounded; then he fought in Bohemia for Ferdinand II, who made him an intimate adviser and prince of the SRI (1620); he was then viceroy of Spain and captain general of Aragon; Andrea Cantelmi, commander in chief of the Spanish armies in Catalonia, was general of artillery and governor in Flanders; and numerous other Italians fought in Flanders under the command of Alessandro Farnese and Ambrogio Spinola. Under the command of Spanish naval squads against France, Holland and England were Giannettino II, Andrea II and Carlo II Doria. In the Iberian-Portuguese war against the Dutch in Brazil, Giovan Vincenzo Sanfelice, count of Bagnuolo played a very important role.
In the French service we find, among others, Filippo Emanuele Gondi, (1581-1662) general of the galleys, Tommaso di Savoia, admiral, and the Piedmontese FM Broglia who fought in Flanders and Spain and became marshal, lieutenant general and governor of the Bastille . At the service of the Empire, the famous Raimondo Montecuccoli should first of all be remembered. In the eastern territories Giorgio Basta, writer of military works, teacher of Rampoldo di Collalto, from Mantua (son of another marshal of the Empire) fought, who fought in Bohemia, Transylvania and Flanders, was field marshal and president of the Council courtly of Vienna. Army general Giovanni Ludovico Isolani fought 38 years for the Empire (1602-40) against the Turks, the Swedes, the Protestants and the French and was made by Ferdinand III count of the SRI Alessandro Dal Borro, from Arezzo (1600-1656), was also a good engineer and leader in Austria, Spain and the East.
A contemporary of Dal Borro, Ottavio Piccolomini, from Siena, was in the Spanish army and then in Germany. In the mid-seventeenth century, the dependence of the Empire was Francesco Antonelli with the rank of general engineer, and Luigi Ferdinando Marsili, Bolognese, learned scientist and very talented military engineer, who prepared the defense of the Raab in the war against the Turkish; he freed the Royal Dawn (Székesfehérvár) from the Turkish siege, at the peace of 1689 he was elected imperial commissioner in Constantinople. In the second half of the century the Roman Marshal Giovanni Piccolomini distinguished himself valiantly against the Turks, he became an ardent supporter of their expulsion from Europe and the restoration of the almost deserted territories of the lower Danube with the people of Italy; the marshals Carlo Clemente Pellegrino, commander in chief of the genius, and Antonio Caraffa, who conquered Eger, Munkács and Belgrade (1688) fought against the Turks.