According to ANSWERRESUME.COM, the regional varieties provided with the greatest expansive strength are the Romanesque and the northern type (especially Lombard), for well-known socio-cultural reasons, as demonstrated by the national diffusion of Romanesque (or southern but Romanesque) words, such as cinematografaro, pataccaro, bad luck, binge, township, gravedigger, caciara, bogus, whine, line, ciriola, master, stinker, smash, mature, fagot; and northern terms, especially through trade and industry, such as die, spumone, heater, dummies, sink (which is supplanting sink, washbasin and also sink), insiemino, balera, bum.
However, it must always be borne in mind that if the contribution of dialects to the common language has been quite relevant in recent decades, the influence of dialects on the morphology and syntax of the language has been very scarce: the more limited use of the subjunctive, the he further restriction on the use of the remote past can only be partially deferred to the structures of many dialects of the peninsula. Moreover, even the lexical contribution is certainly not such as to change the general aspect of the Italian lexicon, also because usually the dialectal words are of very limited scope and use, unlike words of foreign origin.
In conclusion, it can be said that even less than a century ago, even for the majority of cultured Italians, immersed in the living reality of their dialects, Italian was especially the literary language of their written culture. Now, before our eyes, the language of a great past opens up to a popular language, albeit through a difficult, sometimes traumatic, process.
In the last half century, the languages of political, administrative and financial techniques, which had already assumed so much importance in the last century, and in the first of this one, have dramatically expanded their action on the common language, precisely through the great means of communication.. Bureaucratic, trade union, socio-economic, legal language spreads with all its stereotyped formulas, both lexical and syntactic.
On the other hand, the same enormous fortune of a term or of a linguistic mode causes, in a second time, its rapid aging: ” a disaster is always chilling ; a thud is always deaf ; the arrival or rather the intervention of the police, timely ; the official, diligent ; the operation, brilliant ; the event, atrocious and gruesome “(Dardano); and again: an accident occurs, with two cars involved in the accident ; a personhe lost his life, and two others were hospitalized with a confidential prognosis ; the authorities, after a series of postponements, have decided on serious measures against the doctor, who has long been at the center of controversy ; and these measures will have immediate effect, and perhaps the culprit will be associated with prisons, if in the meantime he has not become unavailable. This happens in the city news, as in the political and sports news, in trade union speeches as in economic and scientific publications, even in artistic and literary criticism.
The continuous repetition of sclerotic formulas leads to standardizing impoverishment, to avoid common and concrete words, “as if charcoal stove flasks were obscene words, as if going to find knowing indicated shameful actions” (Calvino), terms that can be translated into bureaucratic-journalistic language respectively in quantity of wine products, thermal plant, fuel, travel, eventually incurring, be aware. As has been said, procedures of this kind are already typical of the official and bureaucratic language of the nineteenth century and earlier, but now they are overwhelmingly affecting the popular masses, precisely through the great means of communication.
On the other hand, we are witnessing an enormous expansion of the lexicon due to the continuous derivation in the common vocabulary of scientific and technical terms, precisely because of the pre-eminent prestige of science and technology in modern life; this process is also very ancient, and already in the eighteenth century it had assumed a very notable vastness, but not comparable with contemporary dimensions. Think of the almost unlimited exploitation, just to respond to the technical proliferation, of prefixes of the aero type -, motorcycle -, photo -, car -, radio -, tele -, and so on. Think of the generic and metaphorical use of terms such as immunize, diagnosis,tune, sterilize, therapy, bloodletting, report, syndrome, capillary, quotient, impact, saturation, balance, pressure, dynamics, flow, infiltration.
The origin of many of the aforementioned prefissoids and most of the scientific terminology is of Anglo-Saxon origin, more often American: Anglism proceeds from all points of the horizon of the Italian language, especially after the Second World War, for the well-known reasons historical. In addition to a gigantic penetration of Anglo-Latinisms (of the type acculturation, public relations, colloquial), the acceptance, at all levels, of Anglo-Saxon words, which by now, together with some older Frenchisms, have constituted a new grammatical category , definable as “nouns ending in a consonant”; any example would be insufficient, so jets are hardly mentioned,transistor, flipper, jeep, juke – box, blue – jeans, stewardess, big, out, staff, gag, gap, boom, test, computer, pacemaker.
Given the different phonetic and grammatical structure of the two languages, the problem of adaptation is particularly serious, unless it is a question of Latinisms already in English. For the words of the Anglo-Saxon background, sometimes is used to cast (call – girl on girl – ringing ; the end – week living with week – end); more often you take the word of weight and is pronounced according to a fairly wide variety of approximations, which will be maximum in remarkable cultural environments (baby – sitter, glamor), minimum in the opposite case (terminal, used in Italy with the value of air – terminal). Moreover, nominal forms, juxtaposing syntactic constructions, often of Anglo-Saxon origin, are massively used by advertising and widely re-diffused: flavor – spring, bubble bath, kitchen-lunch, fashion, Pirelli belt ; while they spread, on the other hand, industry – key, good – refuge, plant – pilot, ground – air, head -queue, and also the type Toast – Gancia (satirized by a humorist in Suicideirsi Breda), Vote socialist, walk Pirelli, dress young.