History of the UAE
The favorable geographical position, which connected the future territory of the UAE with the most ancient civilizations of the East, contributed already in 4-3 thousand BC. development in these places of trade and navigation. For about four thousand years, the northern part of the Arabian Peninsula was occupied by 13 Arab tribes, nomadic from one region to another. History of the UAE in the 1st century AD relatively poorly studied. The lands of the United Arab Emirates first belonged to Oman, then, in the 6th century. BC, fell under the rule of the Persian kings. The years of independence were replaced by new conquests, until the entire southern coast of the Gulf became part of the Arab Caliphate, which spread among the local residents in the 7th century. AD Islam.
In the 16th century the era of eastern conquests was replaced by the time of western colonizers. According to Localcollegeexplorer, the Portuguese were the first of the Europeans to try to gain a foothold in the south of the Persian Gulf, but Turkey, Iran and Oman did not want to cede the disputed area to the newcomers. Western powers did not give up hope of conquering the region. In the 18th century the English East India Company first monopolized all trade in the Gulf, and then, using military might, in 1820 forced the rulers of 7 Arab principalities to sign an agreement that marked the beginning of English dominance in the lands of the UAE (since 1853 they were called Treaty Oman).
However, the dominance of an advanced industrial power did not lead to the destruction of the feudal-patriarchal system. Local residents continued to steadfastly adhere to ancient traditions. Started in the 1920s the liberation struggle in the emirates forced the colonial authorities to take steps that combined the use of military force with the provision of a certain autonomy to the Arab principalities in order to maintain economic control over the region’s oil resources. The growth of anti-British speeches in the 1950s and 60s. forced Great Britain in 1971 to abandon the protectorate and give the emirates the opportunity to proclaim an independent state – the United Arab Emirates, which was founded in December 1971 as part of 6 emirates. The birth of the UAE was a complex process. When independence was declared on December 2, 1971, the emirate of Ras al-Khaimah refused to enter the federation, which nevertheless joined the new state formation in February 1972. In addition, two days before the declaration of independence of the UAE, the troops of the Iranian Shah occupied three strategically important islands in the Strait of Hormuz, two of which belonged to the emirate of Ras al-Khaimah and one to Shard- the same (Abu Musa, Big and Small Tomb). This territorial dispute between Iran and the UAE remains unresolved. In May 1999, an agreement was signed between the UAE and Oman on the demarcation of the border. The federation considers 1971 to be the year of its birth. This territorial dispute between Iran and the UAE remains unresolved. In May 1999, an agreement was signed between the UAE and Oman on the demarcation of the border. The federation considers 1971 to be the year of its birth. This territorial dispute between Iran and the UAE remains unresolved. In May 1999, an agreement was signed between the UAE and Oman on the demarcation of the border. The federation considers 1971 to be the year of its birth.
State structure and political system of the UAE
The United Arab Emirates is a federal state consisting of 7 emirates (absolute monarchies) with special powers delegated to the federation. The Constitution of 1971 is in force, in 1996 it was transformed from temporary to permanent.
Administrative divisions: Emirates of Abu Dhabi, Dubai, Sharjah, Ras Al Khaimah, Al Fujairah, Umm Al Qaiwain, Ajman. Emirates are administratively divided into municipalities.
The largest cities (thousand people): Abu Dhabi, Dubai (737), Sharjah (about 435).
The principles of public administration of the UAE provide for the approval by the rulers of at least 5 emirates of proposals submitted to the government for implementation. The formation of the Armed Forces, according to the Constitution, is transferred to the federal authorities. In 1994, Sharia law was introduced to deal with a number of crimes (murder, theft, drug use and sale).
The highest legislative body: the Supreme Council of the 7 Sheikhs of the Emirates. The highest advisory body of the legislative power: the Federal National Council, consisting of 40 members (8 each from Abu Dhabi and Dubai, 6 each from Sharjah and Ras al-Khaimah, 4 each from other emirates). Each emirate can examine and reject laws made by the Council of Ministers. The highest body of executive power is the Council of Ministers. Head of State: President. Head of the highest body of executive power: Prime Minister.
The president is elected from among the monarchs of the emirates for a period of 5 years, he appoints the prime minister and the Council of Ministers. Each emirate appoints separately its representatives to the Federal National Council.
An outstanding politician of the UAE is the ruler of Abu Dhabi, Sheikh Zayed bin Sultan Al Nahyan, who comes from a noble and ancient family. Since 1971, he has been re-elected several times to the presidency of the United Arab Emirates. Sheikh Zayed proved himself to be a firm supporter of unity, a calm, peace-loving reformer. Having headed Abu Dhabi since 1966, Sheikh Zayed spoke in favor of a policy of using national wealth in order to transform the country and create good for the people. Under his leadership, the UAE entered an era of rapid economic growth and achieved success on the path of modernization. UAE, which was back in the 1970s. country with a tribal system, currently have a modern industrial and social infrastructure, one of the most advanced in the Middle East, in many indicators of the quality of life approached the level of developed countries.
There are no political parties in the UAE. Among the leading business organizations in the UAE, there are a significant number of local chambers of commerce (more than 50) and other specialized bodies that provide assistance in business matters. These include, in particular, the Department of Economic Development of Abu Dhabi, the Dubai Chamber of Industry and Commerce, the administration of the Jebel Ali Free Economic Zone, the contracting and procurement departments of city municipalities, etc. Among the leading business organizations are national companies, in which various proportions are represented by state, private, in some – foreign capital, banking and insurance companies. The social structure of society is represented by layers and groups of an intermediate type from traditional to modern, which have not yet taken shape.
Domestic policy is aimed at creating an economy that meets modern requirements by investing income from the export of oil, gas and oil products, at improving the social conditions of life of the indigenous population. In recent years, more emphasis has been placed on market principles in the economy and privatization. Of particular importance is the development of international tourism in the UAE and the enhancement of the country’s role as a commercial center of international importance. The foreign policy of the UAE is based on the principles of a balanced approach to relations with different states, with a certain priority in relations with the UK. An important place is given to the issues of pan-Arab unity and cooperation within the framework of the GCC.
The armed forces of the UAE consist of the army and navy (including the maritime and coast guard), special forces (including the Federal Police). The total number – St. 70 thousand people fit for military service aged 15 – 49 years – 419,851 people. (2002). In service with several dozen ships and approx. 100 planes, 400 tanks.
The United Arab Emirates have diplomatic relations with the Russian Federation (diplomatic relations between the USSR and the UAE were established in December 1971).