Despite its small territory, Nepal surprises with a variety of landscapes and unique nature. Over the past half century, much has been done in the country to preserve the wild and pristine beauty of this country. Prior to this, the natural wealth of Nepal was practically not threatened due to the low population density and the inaccessibility of many places. Now on its territory there are 16 national parks, reserves and reserves and several more specially protected natural areas. The reserves cover all types of natural and climatic zones found in Nepal: tropical forests, evergreen forests of the subtropical and temperate zones, and high-altitude subalpine, alpine and nival zones. Sagarmatha National Park (Everest) and Royal Chitwan National Park included in the UNESCO World Heritage List. The Royal Chitwan National Park is perhaps the most famous in Nepal. It is located in the Rapti Valley (aka Chitwan) in Terai, a swampy flat region in the south of the country. The Narayani River serves as the western boundary of the park, while the Rapti River serves as the eastern boundary. At first, Chitwan served as a hunting ground for the royal family of Nepal. and aristocracy, but in 1973 it was transformed into a National Park. Chitwan is, first of all, the Asian tropical jungle with all the variety of flora and fauna. There are several villages in the park where you can stay for a few days. The main transport in the national park is the elephant. Elephant travel allows you to view wildlife and tropical vegetation from a safe height. The park is home to wild rhinos, Bengal tigers, leopards, deer, roe deer and many others. In addition to traveling on elephants, in Chitwan you can listen to birds at night or go on foot into the jungle, but always with a guide.
No less interesting, but perhaps less accessible royal reserve Bardiya is located in the west of Nepal near Nepalung and Birendranagar. Its western border runs along the Karnali River, the most untouched area of the Terai. About 70% of the territory of the reserve is covered by sal forests, which are a balanced system of meadows, savannahs and coastal forests. Bardiya has a somewhat drier climate compared to Chitwan, but overall the two parks are similar in terms of flora and fauna. The Royal Reserve of Bardiya is a wonderful habitat for rhinos, wild elephants, tigers, crocodiles, deer, many species of birds, snakes and insects. The small reserve Koshi Tappu, covering the coastal zone of the Sapti Koshi River in eastern Nepal, also deserves a separate visit.. This swampy area is home to many species of birds, including wild ducks, ibis, storks and herons, and people from all over the world come to the reserve specifically to watch them. In addition, wild bison, wild boars and deer are found here. You can get here from Biratnagar, by bus from Kathmandu, and lovers of extreme rafting can get to the reserve along the San Koshi, Arun and Tamor rivers.
According to TOP-MEDICAL-SCHOOLS, national parks located in the Himalayas, such as Sagarmatha (Everest), Langtang and She Phoksunda National Parks, as well as the protected areas of Makalu, Annapurna, Kanchenyuga and others, contrast sharply with the southern protected areas of Nepal. Nature in the highlands is harsh, laconic and beautiful. Almost all eight-thousanders of the country are protected by the state in one way or another. The main mode of transportation in this area is trekking. In the highlands, there are snow leopards, mountain goats, as well as more than a hundred species of birds. Despite the harsh conditions, the fauna here is also rich in rare species. Lantang National Park is famous for its Goisakunda lakes, which are sacred to Hindus. In addition, a black Himalayan bear lives there, and, according to some testimonies of the local population, a bigfoot. She Phoksund National Park is the largest in the Himalayas, and includes the lake of the same name, the deepest in Nepal, and She Monastery.
Most of the historical monuments Nepal is concentrated in the Kathmandu Valley, and this is due to the fact that throughout the history of the state it has been the heart of the country. Most of the monuments in this religious country are associated with Buddhism and Hinduism, these are mainly numerous monasteries, stupas and temple complexes. In the Middle Ages, Nepal was a fragmented state – a community of many small principalities that fought and competed among themselves in the splendor of temples and palaces. Only in the Kathmandu valley there were three strong principalities – Kathmandu proper , Patan (Lalitpur) and Bhaktapur (Bhadgaon). In the center of each city there is its own Durbar (palace) square, on which the main palaces and temples are located. In addition to Durbar Square in Kathmandu, it is worth visiting the Boudhanath and Swayambhunath stupas (along with the monkey palace) and the Pashupatinath temple complex. Not far from Bhaktapur is the ancient monastery of Changu Narayan. And just walking along the tangled streets in the city center, going to the bazaar and looking at the sacred waters of Bagmati will be interesting.
Approximately 20 km from Bhairava is the place Lumbini , which is considered the birthplace of the Buddha (Siddhartha Gautama). Here stands the column of the Indian king Ashoka, testifying to this event. Now Lumbini included in the UNESCO World Heritage List. The city has a special area set aside only for monasteries. It is divided into east and west, in the east is the Teravadin monastery, and in the west – the monasteries of Mahayana and Vairayana. In Lumbini are the ruins of ancient monasteries, a sacred pond and a Bodhi tree, apparently a close relative of the sacred ficus under which the Buddha attained enlightenment.
While trekking in the mountains (especially in the Himalayas), one often comes across secluded Buddhist monasteries – gompas. Some of them can be reached with an excursion, for example, the Tengboche (Tyangpoche) monastery, located in the immediate vicinity of Everest. There are a lot of monasteries and holy places in the vicinity of Annapurna, which can be reached from Pokhara or Jomsom. Not far from Jomsom is the Hindu temple complex Muktinath. At all times, the Himalayas have attracted monks and spiritual people with their solitude and elevation, so in the mountains at every step there are small stupas marking holy places.