Ecotourism in Canada

Territory of Canada extends practically from the North Pole to subtropical regions and from the Pacific Ocean to the Atlantic Ocean. Here you can see a variety of landscapes and natural areas. In Canada, there are about 40 national parks and a huge number of nature reserves and provincial parks. In total, the country’s protected areas cover an area of 730 thousand square meters. km.

According to TOP-MEDICAL-SCHOOLS, the most popular national parks in Canada are the Rocky Mountains .. They are known for a wide variety of recreational opportunities. Here you can engage in hiking, photography, rock climbing, fishing, mountain biking, mountain and cross-country skiing, canoeing and boating on rivers and lakes, watching animals and going horseback riding. In western Alberta, on the border with the province of British Columbia, are Jasper and Banff National Parks. The parks are accessible from the cities of Edmonton and Calgary . Also in the Rocky Mountains, but already in the province of British Columbia are the national parks Kutney, Yoho and Glacier. Traveling on them starts from the city of Golden .

Slightly to the west in the Columbian Mountains is Mount Revelstoke National Park. It is known for its giant pines and cedars, among which passes one of the most spectacular hiking trails, the ancient Western Red Cedars trail. The park also became known as one of the first places in the world where ski jumping competitions were held. Also, in the province of British Columbia, Vancouver Island is worth a visit. Here, 337 km from the capital of the province – Victoria – is Pacific Rim National Park. On the northern tip of the Pacific coast of British Columbia is the city of Prince Rupert. It is the starting point for a trip to the Queen Charlotte Islands. Part of the Queen Charlotte Islands is occupied by the Gwai Haanas National Park with an area of ​​1470 square meters. km. The park was opened to protect the coastal ecosystems and habitats of the ancient Haida Indian tribes. The Queen Charlotte Islands are often referred to as the “Canadian Galapagos Islands” because of the many endemic animal species found here. This is the only place in Canada, where the Pacific puffin nests, is home to the country’s largest coastal eagle populations, as well as the largest populations of peregrine falcons in the world. In spring and summer, gray whales swim through the islands, in addition, sea lions and other pinnipeds can be seen in coastal waters. The village of Ninsteens on Anthony Island is home to Haida totem poles, and the surrounding area is home to Indian villages where you can experience their way of life.

In the central part of the country in the province of Saskatchewan, west of the city of Regina, Grasslands National Park is located – Canada ‘s first park created to protect prairie ecosystems. To the north near the city of Prince Albert sprawledPrince Albert National Park. In addition to the Prince Albert National Park in the northern part of Saskatchewan , Lake Miadow Provincial Park, Lake Athabasca Sand Dunes Provincial Park, where the world’s northernmost sand formations are located, and La Ronge Lake Provincial Park with the highest waterfalls in the province are of interest. Mount Riding National Park is located in the neighboring province of Manitoba near Winnipeg . Also in the province of Manitoba, south of the city of Churchill on the coast of Hudson’s Bay, is the Wapusk National Park.- one of the largest wintering grounds for polar bears in North America.

It is worth noting that numerous herds of bison lived in the steppe provinces of Canada before the arrival of Europeans. During the development of the country’s territory by European settlers, bison were almost completely exterminated. In the 20th century, these animals began to be protected by the state, and today everything is being done to restore their population. Bison herds can be seen in Elk Island National Park near Edmonton , in Prince Albert National Park, in Mount Riding National Park near Winnipeg , and in Wood Buffalo National Park.Wood Buffalo National Park is located in the very north of Alberta on the border with the Northwest Territories. This is the largest national park in the country and one of the largest in the world, its area is 44,807 square meters. km. The park was established in 1922 to protect the world’s largest population of wild bison. Bears, wolves, moose, wolverines, martens and beavers also live here. The Peace and Athabasca rivers form the world’s largest inland river delta in the park. In addition, this delta is the world’s last breeding ground for sandhill cranes and home to many other birds.

In the province of Ontario, from Toronto , you can go to Cape Pelee National Park, which is located on the northern shore of Lake Erie, from Ottawa , you can get to Elongwyn Provincial Park, from Tobermory , on Lake Huron, excursions toBruce Peninsula National Park, Fathom Five National Park and Georgian Bay Islands National Park depart, and from the city of Thunder Bay located on Lake Superior,you can get to Pukaskwa National Park. In addition, not far from the city of Kingston, the National Park of the Islands of the St. Lawrence River is of interest.

In the province of Quebec , you should go to the Gaspesie Peninsula, which is located on the south bank of the mouth of the St. Lawrence River and deeply protrudes into the Gulf of St. Lawrence. In the central part of the peninsula lies the Gaspesie Peninsula Provincial Park. The spurs of the Appalachian Mountains stretch in the park with 25 peaks over 1000 m high. The entire park is dotted with hiking trails, among which is the famous International Appalachian Trail, 650 km long. On the east coast of the Gaspesie peninsula is the Forillon National Park.. The park was created in 1970 on an area of 244 sq. km. The northernmost spurs of the Appalachians, which form 200-meter cliffs near the coastline, and the waters of the Gulf of St. Lawrence, along with the marine animals living in them, are protected here. In the park, you can practice sea kayaking, whale watching, hiking, beach holidays or go on a sea cruise. Also in the province of Quebec, located on 40 islands and about 1000 small islets and reefs in the Jacques-Cartier Strait, the National Park of the Mingan Archipelago is interesting.. In the coastal areas of the park, you can see bizarre grottoes, caves, bridges and rocks that were formed by the forces of water. Inside the island caves are deposits of ancient marine organisms. It is also a great place for bird watching. Opposite the park is the island of Anticosti, where many white-tailed deer live, the population density of which reaches 20 individuals per 1 sq. km. km. From the capital of the province – the city of Quebec – you can go towards Montreal along the old Royal Road, which runs along the left bank of the St. Lawrence River through scenic areas: Laurentides, lakes, forests, rocky shores and through the biosphere reserve of Lake St. Pierre. Slightly to the north is La Maurice National Park.536 sq. km. The park is located on the hilly Laurentian Upland among picturesque lakes. Most of it is covered with forests, 40 species of mammals and 180 species of birds live here.

In the coastal province of Nova Scotia on the peninsula of the same name , Kejimkujik National Park, located 200 km west of Halifax , will be of interest. Off the northeast coast of Nova Scotia lies Cape Breton Island, where the Cape Breton Highlands National Park extends. The main excursion route of the park is the Caboto Trail., which runs along the northern part of the island and closes in a ring. The trail was named after the navigator Giovanni Caboto, because Aspi Bay on the east coast of the island was the first landing point for Giovanni Caboto in the New World. The trail is known for its breathtaking views of the Gulf of St. Lawrence and the Atlantic coast. There are a total of 25 hiking trails in Cape Breton Highlands National Park, mostly offshoots of the Caboto Trail. The trails cover the highlands of the northeastern part of the island, forests, tundra communities and coastal areas. The park contains the highest point of the province – Mount White Hill, 532 m high. The total area of the park is 950 square meters. km.

In the province of New Brunswick, the main natural attraction is the Bay of Fundy.. On its coast, east of the city of St. John , is Fundy National Park. On the east coast of the province, which is washed by the Northumberland Strait, is the Kochibukak National Park. The park was established in 1969 to protect the ecosystems of sand dunes and marshes. In addition, here you can see small coastal islands, lagoons and forests. The total area of ​​the park is 238 sq. km. It is home to numerous bird colonies, including the second largest colony of terns in North America, as well as the rare Song Plover. On the coast you can see seal rookeries. The park has 8 hiking trails, a network of bike paths, two campsites and canoe and boat rentals.

In the province of Prince Edward Islandnumerous provincial parks with beaches stretch along the coast, and the province’s only national park, Prince Edward Island National Park, is located in the central part of the northern coast of the island. Prince Edward Island is so small that all of its protected areas can be visited from the metropolitan city of Charlottetown .

In the province of Newfoundland and Labrador, southwest of the city of Bonavista, on the ocean, is Terra Nova National Park. The park covers an area of 400 sq. km and is the easternmost national park in Canada. Both coastal communities and forests are protected here. There are 14 hiking trails in the park, the most popular of which run along the coast. Off the coast you can see numerous birds, large marine life and drifting icebergs. Also, the coastal areas of the park can be explored by boat, kayak or canoe. In the western part of the province , Gross Morne National Park is interesting, which is the second largest national park in eastern Canada., it covers an area of 1805 sq. km. The park includes the Long Range Mountains, forests, swamps, lowlands and coastal areas with cliffs and sandy beaches. Western Brook Gorge, located in the Long Range Mountains, is especially popular with tourists. The heights of the walls of the gorge reach 600 m. About 240 species of birds live in the park. You can watch birds and other animals while traveling along more than 100 km of hiking trails. In winter, the park offers opportunities for snowmobiling and ice climbing. It is also worth visiting the Torngat Mountains National Park in the north of the Labrador Peninsula. From the east it is washed by the waters of the Labrador Sea, from the north by the Hudson Strait, and in the west it borders on the province of Quebec.. The park contains the highest point of the province – Mount Serk (1676 m), which, like many other peaks of this part of the peninsula, is covered with a glacier. Along the coast of the park you can see polar bears that come here to hunt, and in the interior of the park – herds of caribou. It is worth noting that the largest herd of caribou on the mainland lives on the Labrador Peninsula. Numerous colonies of birds settle along the coasts, and whales live in coastal waters. Until now, the indigenous inhabitants of the country, the Innuits, continue to hunt and fish in the park.

In the northern part of Canada, where three territories extend, there are also quite a few protected areas. 160 km west of the capital of the Yukon Territory – Whitehorse – is locatedKluane National Park. In the far northwest of the Yukon Territory, along the coast of the Beaufort Sea, there are two more national parks: Vuntut National Park and Ivvavik National Park. They are located about 800-900 km from Whitehorse, from where planes leave here. These are actually wild northern regions, where there are no specially equipped hiking trails and places to stay, so tourists should take care of everything in advance. The main event that attracts tourists to these parts is the seasonal reindeer migration, when herds of more than 100,000 individuals migrate in search of food. Seasonal migrations occur in winter and summer.

In the Northwest Territories 500 km to the west Yellowknife is located in Nahanni National Park. In the northern part of the Northwest Territories, beyond the Arctic Circle, there are two more national parks. It is worth noting that these are rather “young” parks and the infrastructure is practically not developed here: there are no places for tourists in the parks and there are no specially equipped hiking trails. But this is what attracts tourists here who want to relax in the natural conditions of the far north. Tuktut Nogait National Park is located 830 km northwest of Yellowknife. on the Arctic coast and covers an area of 16340 sq. km. Herds of the so-called “blue-nosed” reindeer live here, on which the life of the local population still depends, wolves, grizzly bears, musk oxen, as well as many birds of prey. Arctic grayling and salmon are found in the local rivers and lakes. The most popular forms of tourism in the park are hiking, animal and bird watching, and fishing. Of the natural attractions, one can single out the La Roncière Falls, the Pillar Canyon on the Hornaday River, as well as permafrost landforms – heaving mounds, which were formed as a result of freezing of highly moistened rock strata and an increase in their volume due to local accumulation of ice. The heights of such hills reach several tens of meters.

Aulavik National Parkis located on the northern coast of Banks Island and occupies approximately 1/5 of its territory. Banks Island is the westernmost of the islands in the Canadian Arctic Archipelago. The park was founded in 1992, its area is 12274 sq. km. You can get to the park only by plane from the city of Inuvik, which is located in the Mackenzie River Delta. Aulawik Park is one of the few places in Canada where you can see icebergs. In the center of the park flows the Thomsen River – one of the northernmost navigable rivers in the world. The park offers rafting, hiking, and bird and wildlife watching. The island is inhabited by a population of about 80,000 musk oxen, arctic foxes, wolves and hares, rare deer – Piri caribou, stoats and lemmings, and sometimes polar bears. Sea hares, sea hares and beluga live in coastal waters. Of the birds, peregrine falcons, gyrfalcons, buzzards and snowy owls are common. The park also contains many historical sites associated with ancient peoples who began to settle on the island about 4000 years ago.

In the Territory of Nunavut, from the capital – Iqaluit – you can go to those located on the island of Baffin IslandAuyuittuq National Park, through which the Arctic Circle passes, to Sirmilik National Park and Ellesmere Island, which is called the “end of the world” and where Kuttinirpaak National Park extends. On the mainland of the Territory of Nunavut, the Ukkusiksalik National Park is of interest. This is one of the youngest national parks in Canada.. The park extends along Vaner Bay over an area of 20,500 sq. km. The best time to visit these places is from May to August. On the territory of the park you can see rocks, hills, tundra and coastal lowlands – watts. It offers trekking through the tundra and coastal hills of Vaner Bay, bird and marine animal watching, and excursions to more than 500 archaeological sites.

Ecotourism in Canada