Colombia is a country in the northern part of South America, bordering the Caribbean Sea between Panama and Venezuela and bordering the Pacific Ocean between Ecuador and Panama. According to aristmarketing, Colombia is thus the only country in South America that has both Pacific coast and Caribbean coast.
The country’s capital is Bogota, is the world’s third highest capital with 2640 masl. It is also the largest city in terms of area and population in the country.
The word Colombia comes from the name of Christopher Columbus and was first used by Francisco de Miranda as a term for the New World, especially all American territories and colonies under Spanish and Portuguese rule.
The portrayal of Colombia in popular culture, especially the portrayal of Colombian people in film and fiction, is claimed by Colombian organizations and the government to be largely negative due to the societal prejudices and discriminations associated with drug trafficking, terrorism, illegal immigration and others. criminal elements, as a result of poverty, etc.
Football has been known to play a major role in creating a positive impression, and is therefore considered to be the most important in the country.
1525 – Spain began the conquest of Colombia.
1533 – The city of Cartagena is founded on June 1 and named after Cartagena in Spain, which in turn is named after Carthage in Tunisia. The area around the Gulf of Cartagena has been inhabited by various indigenous peoples since 4000 BC
1535 – First permanent settlement founded in Santa Marta. It was Rodrigo de Bastidas who chose the place because of its natural beauty and safe haven. Today it is an important port city, and the center of tourism, culture and history. In 1984, Cartagena’s colonial city and fortress were inscribed on the UNESCO World Heritage List.
1536-1538 – Gonzalo Jiménez de Quesada leads an expedition to the Andes. As a well-trained lawyer, he was one of the few intellectuals in the Spanish conquest. He died in Suesca, of leprosy, on February 16, 1579, about 70 years old (date of birth uncertain).
1538 – The Spanish establish the settlement of Santa Fe de Bogotá, which is today the current capital. It was renamed Bogotá in 1810, following a revolt against the Spanish colonial powers.
1550-1717 – New Granada was the name of the Spanish colonial territory in northern South America, which today belongs only to Colombia. After 1717, the territory became part of the Viceroyalty of New Granada. In 1550, African slaves were sent to work on the Colombian plantations.
1564 – The Spanish government is appointed to govern the Colombian colony.
1700 – The Viceroyalty of New Granada consists of Colombia, Venezuela, Ecuador and Panama.
1810 – Colombia declares independence from Spain.
1812 – In July, nationalist Simón Bolívar is forced to flee to Cartagena, where he subsequently wrote his famous manifesto, in which he called on New Granada ( Colombia ) to assist Venezuela in the struggle for freedom. The following year, on January 13, 1813, he declared the Spaniards a “war of life and death.” On August 4 of that year, he moved to Caracas, where he gained supreme power in New Granada and Venezuela, nicknamed “Libertador”. He invaded Venezuela in 1813. He entered Mérida on May 23 and was proclaimed a Liberator. of the people.
1814 – Spain sends troops to South America to suppress colonial insurgency.
1819 – The Battle of Boyacá takes place on August 7, and is considered to be the beginning of independence from Spain in the northern part of South America, and is therefore important because it led to further victories at the Battle of Carabobo in Venezuela, Pichincha in Ecuador and Junin Ayacucho in Peru.
1819-1830 – Simón Bolívar becomes the first president of Greater Colombia from December 17, 1819-4. May, 1830. He died weakened by war injuries and tuberculosis on a ranch called The Quinta de San Pedro Alejandrino, December 17, 1830, in Santa Marta. In 1832, his ashes were brought to Caracas with great solemnity.
1853 – Slavery is abolished.
1891 – The Colombian National Police is established.
1899-1902 – The Millennium War, was a civilian armed conflict between the Conservatives, the Liberals and the Radical factions. The Conservative government won and still works to this day.
1903 – Panama secedes from Colombia with US support; it led the United States to begin construction on the Panama Canal.
1910 ASTRONOMY: Astronomer Julio Garavito Armero discovered an impact crater on the back of the moon (Garavito crater). The name was officially awarded by the International Astronomical Union (IAU) in 1970.
1922 – US pays Colombia $ 25 million for the loss of Panama.
1939-1945 – Colombia helped the US to keep the Panama Canal opened during World War II.
1948-1958 – 250,000-300,000 killed in the Civil War. The conflict stretched between supporters of that country’s Liberal Party and the Conservative Party. La Violencia began with the assassination of Jorge Eliécer Gaitan in 1948, after which a series of uprisings took hold in Bogotá, just as a series of uprisings spread throughout the rest of the country.
1953-1957 – General Gustavo Rojas Pinilla, becomes the 19th President of the country in a peaceful coup on 13 June. He died on January 17, 1975, aged 74 years.
1954 – The television was inaugurated on June 13, by General Gustavo Rojas Pinilla, who was impressed by the new invention during a visit to Nazi Germany as a military attaché.
1957 – On May 10, the people of Colombia had had enough of the Pinillas government, and they demonstrated massively, demanding his resignation. The events of that day were called a “coup d’etat of public opinion.” A military junta of 5 generals took control of the nation.
1964-1966 – A revolutionary armed rebel group, called the FARC, is founded. The group has been in armed conflict with other paramilitary groups and the Colombian government since the mid-1960s, costing hundreds of thousands of victims.
1970 – The alleged fraudulent parliamentary election on 19 April is the beginning of the M-19 – 19 April movement, formed in 1971 after ANAPO, created by the former military dictator Gustavo Rojas Pinilla, was denied an election victory.. The group’s ideology was a mixture of nationalist revolutionary socialism and populism, inspired by other South American guerrilla groups, such as the Tupamaros in Uruguay and Monteneros in Argentina.
1975 – On November 22, Colombian police seize 600 kg of cocaine – the largest seizure to date – from a small plane. Drug dealers react with revenge, killing 40 people over a weekend – what is known as the Medellin massacre. The event is the starting signal for the cocaine industry, which is headquartered in and managed by Medellin.
1976 – Pablo Escobar was Colombia’s biggest drug lord.
1978 – Politician Belisario Betancur grants guerrillas amnesty and frees political prisoners.
1980 – M-19 besieges the Dominican embassy in Bogotá amid a cocktail party on 27 February. They captured the largest registered number of diplomats to date in Colombia, including some from the United States. They had a total of 60 hostages, which they held for 61 days. On April 27, the 16 guerrillas left the embassy, taking the remaining 12 diplomats on a flight to Cuba. They were hailed by many Colombians waiting for them at the airport. The hostages were released as soon as they landed in Havana. The head of the M-19 group, Rosemberg Pabón, promised to return to Colombia. After living in exile in Cuba, he returned to Colombia and signed a peace agreement with the government in 1990.
1981 – The Medellin cartel was founded on January 1, and led by the Ochoa brothers Jorge Luis, Juan David, and Fabio, along with Pablo Escobar, Carlos Lehder, and José Gonzalo Rodríguez Gacha.
1982 – At this time, Pablo Escobar was the world’s greatest drug lord, and the most powerful man in Colombia. Under Pablo Escobar’s regime, his cartel became larger and more powerful than the Colombian government. In March 1982, he channeled some of his black money to the community, built relationships with the poor and local Catholics, and gained a reputation as Robin Hood. He was elected to the National Assembly as a member of the Colombian Liberal Party, but was later overthrown by officials accusing him of being linked to the country’s violent drug cartels.
1984 – An assassin working for Escobar and the Medellin cartel shot and killed Colombian Justice Minister Rodrigo Lara Bonilla on April 30 in Bogotá. Bonilla was a staunch opponent of Escobar, accusing him of having links to the drug cartels. He was one of those who displaced Escobar the year before. The assassination led to Escobar being charged with murder, and a lengthy extradition cost thousands of lives.
1985 – Escobar controls more than 80 percent of the cocaine smuggled into the United States. More than 15 tons of cocaine were allegedly smuggled every day, and the cartel earned as much as $ 420 million a week.
On November 6, on Escobar’s orders, armed M-19 guerrillas storm the Palace of Justice in Bogotá’s Plaza Bolivar, destroying evidence against Escobar. They killed over 100 people.
November 13 from the Tragedy of Amero place when the volcano Nevado del Ruiz erupted after 69 years of dormancy. The eruption came behind the nearby towns, although the government had received warnings from several volcanic organizations to evacuate the area when the activity was discovered in the month of September. A mudslide covered the town of Amaro, killing more than 23,000 people and injuring more than 5,000.
1986 – On February 19, Barry Seal, a drug smuggler for the Medellin cartel who worked for the DEA as an informant, was shot and killed by Colombian assassins in Baton Rouge, LA (USA). Seals’ cooperation with the authorities led to the United States being able to prosecute the leaders of the Medellin cartel.
1987-1993 – Pablo Escobar was the 7th richest person in the world, with an astronomical and amazing net worth of $ 42 billion (equivalent to $ 107 billion in 2017). Escobar was also the most violent, ruthless, deadly, dangerous, and feared drug lord in the world. He was called “the unofficial dictator of Colombia” by the Colombian and American governments.
Colombia cancels extradition agreement with US.
1989 – A US government supplies the Colombian government with equipment to combat drug trafficking. Escobar is also on Forbes’ list in July, as one of the richest people in the world.
When Colombian presidential candidate Luis Carlos Galán was shot and killed on August 18, he was opposed to drug cartels and a supporter of Colombian and US extradition policies.
On November 27, Avianca Flight 203 was detonated by a bomb, killing 110 passengers, as well as 3 people who were near the plane. Investigators believed the bombing was an attempt to kill César Gaviria Trujillo, the successor to Luis Carlos Galán, who was not on board. The incident helped the Bush administration help the Colombian government find and prosecute Escobar.
1991 – After the Colombian government votes to ban the extradition of criminals to the United States, Escobar surrenders on June 19, on the condition that his sentence would be “lenient” and that the United States would not extradite him. His prison ( La Catedral ) was a luxurious mansion, complete with football pitch, private baths, and reportedly a majestic view of Medellin and the Andes. Watch video here.
1992 – In July, after serving a year and a month, Escobar was on the run again. It is said that even with the Colombian army surrounding La Catedral, he just strutted straight out of the back entrance. The subsequent 600-man unit, specially trained by the US Delta Force, ” Search Bloc ” (led by Colonel Hugo Martinez ), was put on the hunt for the drug lord.
1993 – 16 months after his escape from La Catedral, the end had come for Pablo Escobar, who died in a shooting between him and Search Bloc, on 2 December. They had tracked him down in Los Olivos, Medellin, where he was shot and killed, the day after his 44th birthday. Escobar has since been the subject of several books, movies and TV series.
1999 – A major earthquake kills 1,000 people when the cities of Armenia and Pereira are hit. The quake also affected Risaralda, Valle Del Cauca, Tolima, Antioquia and Cundinamarca, but Armenia was the hardest hit city. It took 15 years to rebuild the city, but in the meantime became the most visited area in the country.
2000 – Plan Colombia receives nearly $ 1 billion in military aid in the fight against drug traffickers and rebels.
2001 – The revolutionary FARC rebels liberate 359 police officers and troops in exchange for 14 captured rebels.
2016 – The FARC and the government approached so much that a ceasefire was reached, which came into force on August 29, when FARC leaders asked all members to lay down their arms and stop fighting, while the government signed a decree that the military should cease. all combat operations directed at the FARC. Both the US and the EU have the group on their list of drug-related terrorist organizations.